Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic disease that occurs as a result of an increase in blood sugar levels. Many people live with diabetes for many years and pay no attention to the obvious signs of the disease. Lack of insulin in the body or its ineffective effect can affect the level of increased sugar. Importers It is important to note that diabetes is a disease that has its own types. Basically, people with diabetes are divided into 2 types: insulin dependent (type 1 diabetes) and insulin independent (type 2). This disease is incurable, and if a patient is diagnosed with this disease, then he will accompany it all his life.
Often people suffering from this disease are interested in the issue of nutrition and food products that can be used in food in order to normalize and balance metabolism in the body. Product preference should be attributed to vegetables, fruits, meat and dairy products. Nowadays doctors are of the opinion that proper nutrition is the best prevention for diabetes. If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, then you need to find the right treatment (limit taking extra medication) and stick to the correct diet. The most important thing is not to treat yourself when you diagnose such a disease, but to go to a consultation with an endocrinologist, who can tell you everything about diabetes, prescribe the necessary treatment and also tell youhow to behave properly, and actually live with diabetes. Many do not even think about how dangerous this disease is and how many people in the world die because of late diagnosis or because of the complications that were caused by diabetes. In this article, we will look at the basic dietary rules for each type of diabetes, and also examine a list of foods that are best rejected, and which, on the contrary, are preferred.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 diet
The first type of diabetes is more dangerous and serious. When diagnosing this type, a person is assigned insulin injections, which will have to be done throughout his life. Many do not adhere to a diet for diabetes and because of this, the disease can progress rapidly, give complications and provoke various diseases.
The main treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes is choosing the right insulin and in the required doses. It is very important that the doctor correctly chooses the pharmaceutical preparation, its dose, and also helps to formulate the necessary diet, as it can also be individualized. Proper treatment is essential for a patient with diabetes. Since if treatment does not start on time, the consequences can be dire. Of course, insulin itself will normalize blood sugar levels, but with the right diet, the number of injections per day can be reduced. And remember that only your doctor should prescribe treatment and diet, as the first type of diabetes is quite dangerous and it is better not to "play with it".
There is a special system for calculating the required dose of insulin and calculating the food eaten, this system is called the "bread unit". Under this system, one unit of bread equals 10-15 grams of carbohydrates. In simple terms, a unit of bread is, for example, an orange or a slice of bread. As a rule, doctors set up a table at which the patient can mark and check the level of bread units.
By the way, it is worth noting that all doctors recommend keeping a diabetic diary, in which it will be necessary to indicate all the food eaten per day, as well as its amount. This will help the doctor to control your disease and identify certain nuances. With type 1 diabetes, the main thing is to stick to certain rules that will in no way distinguish you from a healthy person. The main thing is that a food premium does not exceed 7 units of bread. It is very important to calculate the dose of insulin and bread units before each meal. And the main thing you should give up are sweet drinks (lemonade, energy drinks, sweet tea, gases and just sweet juices), as they contain too much sugar and this can significantly harm the well-being of the patient. and dramatically increase sugar levels.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet
Most often, due to overweight or banal overeating a person can develop type 2 diabetes. With this disease, the main task is to normalize metabolism and carbohydrates. Remember that diabetes mellitus appears not only due to consumption of large amounts of sugar, banal overeating can also provoke the development of the disease. The body does not produce enough insulin, or the cells simply lose their sensitivity to it. As a rule, doctors recommend correct treatment (with pills), diet and active lifestyle (daily physical activity is what you need).
The diet required for patients with type 2 diabetes, and such patients are usually overweight and obese, can be properly selected and prescribed by an endocrinologist, as this disease is of an endocrine nature. When prescribing a diet, the doctor should interview the patient and clarify gender, body weight, age category, and the presence of physical activity.
The second type of diet is based on weight loss and normalization of metabolism. Often the doctor can calculate the right amount of calories per day. As a rule, the number of calories is calculated from the proportions per 1 kilogram of body - 20 calories for women and for men - 25. So, if you want, you can independently calculate the required number of calories throughout the day. If a person has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, it is very important to remember that diet will need to be followed consistently. Becauseshte because of this it is very important to create a diet in order to be tasty, healthy and varied. But, remember that high-calorie meals and foods that raise blood sugar levels should be completely eliminated.
When planning a diet for diabetes, it is very important to remember that you should use more foods that contain fiber and water. Such products will help to satisfy the appetite and at the same time will not be deposited with excess pounds in the body. The main thing is to lose weight, but this should be done carefully so as not to gain more pounds later.
Calories and their allowed amount during the day
People with diabetes can often lose their diet due to acute and severe hunger and food restriction. Importers It is important to remember that the main thing in the diet is not to count the number of calories eaten, but simply to eat the right foods. Under no circumstances should you count calories and try to limit them, as this, on the contrary, can only aggravate the disease and worsen the well-being of the patient. Scientists argue that it is nutrition that mainly affects the development of diabetes mellitus and the occurrence of concomitant diseases.
There is a so-called low carb diet, which, of course, will force you to give up some foods, even the ones you used to love, and eat constantly. At the same time, you can choose the right foods and the diet will be quite tasty and satisfying. By simply eating the right diet, you can control your blood sugar levels, and food can be just as delicious, but also healthy. By the way, in 2012, scientists from Dubai conducted a study on the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on the condition and well-being of patients, as it turned out that patients who adhered to this diet were less likely to break down and control sugar levelsin the blood, the treatment was less painful and practically without any particular restriction on the amount of food.
Fruits that can be eaten with diabetes
In diabetes mellitus, special attention is paid to fruits, as they are fruits that contain a lot of fiber, and also concentrate many useful vitamins, trace elements and minerals. Compared to other products, their concentration is several times higher. It should be noted that they contain mainly fructose and sucrose, but glucose is practically absent.
If we fully compare all the possible fruits, then only some of them can be distinguished, as only a few fruits give the body any value. Also, it is worth noting that not all fruits are recommended to be consumed, some fruits, on the contrary, are contraindicated for diabetics.
Among the fruits that are recommended for diabetics are: grapefruit, lemon, orange, apple, apricot, peach, pear, pomegranate, a variety of dried fruits (it is recommended to use dried apricots, prunes, dried apples), amongberries you may notice - cherries, blueberries, cranberries, raisins, berries. But for example, watermelons and melons should be consumed in moderation, as they contain more carbohydrate ingredients. As you have already understood, it is necessary to consume sour varieties of fruits and berries, they will be more useful and will not significantly and strongly increase blood sugar levels.
Allowed productsMany diabetics ask exactly the question of what food is allowed, as food is one of the most important factors for them. We will provide you with a list of foods that are recommended to be used, but I would like to point out that this is just a rough list. A more accurate diet for diabetes should only be determined by your attending physician, as he knows all of your pathologies and medical history. So what foods can you eat:
- vegetable or mushroom soup, okroshka, low-fat fish soup;
- lean meats: chicken, rabbit, beef, beef;
- it is better to take bread from the second class of flour, or rye or wheat, whole-grain bread;
- low-fat fish, but you can only use boiled or roasted fish, fried should be removed from the diet. Canned food can be consumed, but it is important to pay attention that they should be in their own juice, other types of canned food are prohibited;
- of cereals, priority should be given to wheat, barley, buckwheat, oats and pearl barley porridge; Eggs
- can also be consumed, but not more than 2 eggs per week, and only protein is better, but it is better to limit the amount of egg yolk;
- low-fat dairy products: cottage cheese, milk, yoghurt, and low-fat hard cheeses;
- from fruits and berries, preference should be given to non-sweet varieties (apple, kiwi, grapefruit);
- compotes, jellies and even sweets can be consumed, but it is very important that they are based on sorbitol or saccharin;
- Cucumber, squash, tomato, squash, lettuce, cabbage and eggplant are the preferred vegetables. Summer very good to use these raw vegetables (for example, in a salad);
- potatoes can be eaten in moderation and it is very important to soak them in water before cooking, as when soaked they release starch, which is harmful in diabetes and can raise sugar;
- herbal teas, sour berry juice, uzvar.
As you can see, the list of allowed foods is quite large and the main thing is just to adjust to the right food and consume more vegetables and fruits. A diet with diabetes can be quite tasty, the main thing is to understand that your health and well-being depend on it.
Products that are banned
There are some foods that are contraindicated and forbidden for diabetics, as they can significantly raise blood sugar. Above all, it is food that affects sugar levels. What kind of food is contraindicated and which products are better to refuse:
- fatty meat soup;
- whole grain bread;
- fatty meats, it is better to give up pork, lamb, duck and goose. It is also necessary to exclude from your diet the types of smoked meat, sausage and lard; Flour products
- - pie, bun and various types of biscuits. Butter and cakes, as well as any product made from them, are strictly forbidden;
- it's worth giving up coffee and any coffee drink;
- fatty fish, salted or smoked fish, canned food (if cooked in oil or tomato);
- fried, spicy and fatty foods are completely contraindicated, as they will only increase the sugar and may provoke the development of any other disease;
- salted cheeses, curd masses and simply sweet and fatty cottage cheese, butter and cream;
- dairy products with a high percentage of fat content;
- legumes (peas, beans), varieties of salted and pickled vegetables;
- from fruits are forbidden: all kinds of grapes, bananas, dates, strawberries, figs;
- jam, sugar, chocolate and various candy products;
- energy and carbonated beverages;
- juices containing high amounts of glucose (grapes, lots of fruit), as well as sugar-based lemonades;
- from cereals, you should forget about white rice, oatmeal, as well as any type of pasta.
Proper diet is very important for those people who suffer from diabetes. A diet during diabetes is simply necessary and limiting certain foods can greatly facilitate the patient's life. So everything is in your hands, remember that by adhering to a certain diet, treatment will be much easier.
It is very important to remember that when diagnosing diabetes, the main thing is proper treatment and proper diet. For some reason, many forget about diet and assume that doctor-prescribed pills or insulin normalize sugar, and this is not entirely wrong, as frequent drops in sugar can provoke the development of other more serious diseases. Often this disease negatively affects the eyesight, heart and joints. With diabetes, many of them live happily ever after, but in some ways you have to limit yourself.
Proper treatment, diet, physically active lifestyle are the key to a long and happy life of a diabetic. Whatever the diagnosis of diabetes, treatment is necessary in any case, and therefore the diet should be corrected immediately. Yes, diabetes mellitus is one of the incurable diseases (although scientists have been trying for many years to find a cure for a complete cure), which can cause other diseases, but if you learn to live with it correctly, you will have a long and happy life. Remember, quality treatment and diet for diabetes is the most important thing.